Hay fever is a type of allergic rhinitis which is characterized by an acute or chronic inflammation of the nasal mucosa. The incidence of allergic rhinitis is about 85% in the world’s population, predominantly affecting people aged between 5 and 25 years.
Beside hay fever which is one type of allergic rhinitis, there are also more seasonal allergies. Keep reading to find out all you need about hay fever, allergic rhinitis, and other allergies.
Types of allergic rhinitis:
- Hay fever – is a form of seasonal allergic rhinitis, which is often associated with conjunctivitis. Appears especially in spring and summer. At the beginning of spring, pollen is the major cause, while in summer, the causes are the hays and other herbs.
- Perennial allergic rhinitis – lasts all year round. It is often associated with bronchial asthma pathology. It is caused by allergens constantly present in the environment, such as dust mites (found in mattresses, pillows, carpets, armchairs, etc.), molds, feathers, animal furs, etc. The person with perennial allergic rhinitis always present flu-like symptoms. The crisis can start in the morning and can be repeated several times a day.
- Occupational rhinitis – occurs as a result of constant exposure to various allergenic substances present in the workplace (solvents, detergents, etc.).
In case of allergic rhinitis, the allergens can be:
- Dust (with or without mites in it)
- Puff, feathers, hair, animal fur
Allergic rhinitis is characterized by:
- Nasal itching
- Watery rhinorrhea
- Nasal obstruction
A number of medicines can alleviate the symptoms of allergic rhinitis. Oral administration, nasal sprays, syrups, and many more, are given.
Between the most effective treatments there are:
- Antihistamines – they act on the inflammatory process, on nasal secretions, itching, and sneezing.
- Nasal decongestants – in combination with antihistamine medication, also decreases nasal secretions and reduces the inflammatory process in the nasal mucosa. They are present in pharmacies in the form of tablets, nasal sprays, or syrups. Their administration is indicated as a temporary method.
- Nasal corticosteroids – are anti-inflammatory drugs that block the allergic reaction. Are indicated for people who have failed the antihistamine therapy, but especially in perennial allergic rhinitis.
- Desensitization therapy – it applies when the drugs are ineffective and consists of injecting of progressive doses of allergenic substances. It is used for allergies at pollen or mites.
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