How do we take care of our health?
Do you consider yourself a healthy person? Are you leading a healthy lifestyle? Or is it “a healthy way of living” the upper goal that you’ve established a long time ago and still couldn’t reach it? Yes, a lot of us can relate to that situation and it brings some comfort to us knowing that there are other people in the same situation as we are. We just like and feel better when we know that somebody else couldn’t do the things we promised ourselves that we will do.
It’s like an “I-couldn’t-do-it-either” competition. But personally, I think that the most important question here should be: what does healthy really mean to each and every one of us? To this last question, people’s opinions are definitely divided: women would argue that a healthy lifestyle means eating properly while men would say that healthy means a well-trained body, some well defined muscles and a lot of physical activity.
Maybe it is just a matter of priorities for both genders. We know men and women see things entirely different and tend to focus on completely different things, so this dilemma shouldn’t come as a surprise either. Me, on the other hand, I would say that leading a healthy lifestyle means a perfect equilibrium between physical and mental health. And in this article, I will bring a lot of arguments for what this equilibrium is so important for us all.
When we are talking about health and any other topics that imply this part of our lives, we often think only about the physical part, am I right? Of course, because it is a common fact to care more about our body and the way we look than how we actually feel on the inside. We have a wrong habit of blaming our busy lives for the stress we’re supposed to go through, day by day, and we constantly blame something or someone else for everything bad that happens to us or the negative way of thinking or seeing things. But what we are not aware of is that these thoughts and emotions play a major role in our mental health, which is as important as it is the physical one.
One extremely important thing we should never forget is that we, as humans, are made both of body and mind, and our well-being has a lot to do with these two. So while we often tend to ignore the status of a healthy mind, we might fall into the other extreme direction, which is paying too much attention to our physical health and go to extreme measures in order to achieve the ideal body image that we dream of. This is why it is important to maintain a certain balance between the two of them. It is the surest way to know that we are in complete control of our health and healthy lifestyle.
As I said, to many of us, healthy living could seem merely a goal or a dream, because we know – temptations and laziness are all over the place. Add lack of motivation to these and you get the perfect excuses to give up our good intentions of leading a healthy life. Following a personal diet or a well-established fitness program is easy to develop but harder to achieve it, just as theory is easier than practice.
As an old saying argues, it is always easier said than done and we so know it, right? But between this thought and that, there’s that one big question that shows up: how do we take care of our health? How can we skip the laziness, lack of motivation and temptation part and go straight to achieving our most desired goal?
Health is a sensitive subject for all of us, and without forgetting the fact that it is made of physical and mental components, here are some great advice on how you should be more responsible with you and your lifestyle. Let’s start with the physical part of our health!
First of all, try or learn to replace bad habits with good ones. Bad habits are easily acquired, no doubt on that, and it’s always more difficult to keep up with the good habits than is giving into temptation. On the long way, we might be tempted to ditch all the positive thinking and good intentions that we once set. So how do we manage to stick to the good and noble cause? Finding the right motivation might help.
Let me give you some examples. So if my goal is to lose weight, the right motivation would be to look hot for the new guy on town or to fit nicely into my new bathing suit. Or maybe I set a goal to eat more fruits and vegetables and less fast food. This is a harder one, because lack of time or busyness might get in the way and make us take a step back from the good cause. Here is where temptation might crawl in, because it is really difficult to walk past a fast food shop and not to crave some delicious pastries that we see in the show-window, especially when we think of how little time we have to serve a meal between one duty job and another.
Basically, the most useful advice we can learn at this point is: Let’s not delude ourselves with false pretenses, such as “I want to live healthy from now on.” If the goal seems impossible to achieve in a short period of time, then our motivations goes stray. Secondly, pay special attention to food.
We all have to eat well in order to give our body the energy and stimulation needed to go through tasks and fulfill responsibilities day by day, but selecting the right food to eat and cutting down the amount of fast food we intake daily have their own benefits. Try to stick to the bases – choose fruits and vegetables, whole grain cereals and some fat-free products. What’s more, try to develop your own healthy diet based on what you like to eat and what you should eat in order to acquire a good health.
There are plenty of diets and “successful receipts” that you can follow in order to achieve your perfect body: you can try out vegetarian or semi-vegetarian diets, vegan diets, weight control diets, low-calorie diets (or very low!), which can be split into low-carbohydrate diets or low-fat diets, raw food diet, Mediterranean diet and so on. More importantly, you can make your own personalized diet and use it how you please. There are also diets based on your blood type or others based on the body shape you have: endomorph, ectomorph, mesomorph.
Most of women especially choose to cut down several foods from their daily meals, thinking that this is a faster way to lose body weight and avoid eating too much calories, but this is not the answer. If we want to do this right, first we should calculate the exact amount of calories that it is necessary to intake daily based on our body measures.
Read some articles on how to calculate the calories in order to not gain extra weight. Think of this step as a part of getting a little bit closer to your goal. Also, remember not to starve yourself to death. This fight with the extra pounds might turn into a harmful obsession if it is not handled carefully. So you’d better remember that safety comes first.
Thirdly, do some regular exercises, because physical activity is a must if we want to take care or our health properly. You don’t have to bother going to gym or paying a personal fitness instructor as long as you are willing to give up some of your time and creating your own fitness routine. In fact, there are a few good mobile apps that include a complete workout routine program and some of them have even a personal instructor that teaches you how to do the exercises, how many repeats are necessary and for how long.
The best thing at these fitness mobile apps is that they come with instructions, either in writing or in showing and you can use them for as long as you please. The benefit is that you don’t have to pay a cent for the tips and tricks, they are totally free. The only “payment” is the battery of your cell phone.
The most common types of fitness exercises that you can do at home are: jumping jacks, crunches, pushups, lunges, cardio exercises (which means running), weight exercises, stretching, strains. You can also search for types of fitness exercises for a certain part of your body that you want to work-out on. For example, if fat belly is your biggest problem, then you only have to work the muscles from that area, so it’s not necessary to do fitness for legs if you’re interested in losing belly weight.
Just remember this piece of advice: Start from easy to hard exercises and increase the period of performing them every once in a while. It will help you develop resistance and you will definitely feel and see the results after a few weeks!
Extra piece of advice: if you ever feel like giving up, like there is no point to continue or there are no results to make you proud yet, just remember why you really started it and what it took (the effort, the will, the motives) to get you where you are in that moment. Motivation is a strong inner force that needs constant “food” to grow and if you ever feel like you’re losing it, start asking yourself why and number the reasons that made you want to start it in the first place and it will surely come back to you! Positive thinking is a great help, so make sure not to miss its benefits!
Last but not in the least, take care of your mental health. This is the most important and sometimes hard to achieve goal, due to the stress and the busyness that we live in. We move so fast through life that we forget to stop for a few moments and just enjoy the simple stuff: the quite hours in the morning, the view of a clear sky, listening to the favorite song on repeat, watching and re-watching the movie that made us cry (with joy or sorrow) or the time spent with the loved ones. But mental health is not made only of our pshychological well-being, but also our emotions and social well-being.
How we relate to others, how we connect and interact with each other in small or bigger groups, how one person or another make us feel when we are around them or simply talking and sharing information, all of these are part of your mental health. They also have a powerful impact on our thoughts, actions and behavior. And let’s not mention all of the disease and mental illnesses that might affect us as we grow older. Either it is about mental conditions inherited in the family, life experiences such as traumas, abuses, or a bunch of biological factors as is genetics or genes, these are all factors that can interfere with our mental health.
It might be difficult to spot whether a person is experiencing some signs of poor mental health, but there are several signs that can show us that, such as: having problem sleeping or eating (too much or too little), lack of energy, unexplained pains, negative feelings towards ourselves or people around us, bad behavior, contradictory mood changes, vices or drugs, feeling insecure or experiencing some worrying states of mind, even thoughts about harming yourself or some other people.
Keeping a clear mind and eliminate the negative vibes of our lives plays an important role in every stage of our lives, either as kids or as grown-ups.
How do we manage to be more optimistic and fight against the negative moods that tempt us?
Let’s check these tips out:
First, for each negative thought you have, replace it with a positive one. Okay, so today I was late for work, but hey, I managed to accomplish my target for the day. Or you felt annoyed by the salary delay, but instead, you received an extra bonus for your work on the project.
If you can’t find any motives to feel good about yourself, then help someone in need or try to do a good deed, because it will help a lot. In fact, when you lay your head on the pillow at night, try to remember at least two good deeds that you did through the day and you will definitely feel more optimistic and enthusiast about yourself.
Second, start realizing your full potential. Find reasons of productive work and you will cope with the stress in your life more easily. Make each achievement at the office a reason to be more proud of you, your skills and your potential. A lot of people have the potential to conquer the world, but just a few of them are aware of what they can really do or obtain. What do you say if you are one of them?
Third, try to find new ways of connecting to people and enjoy their company. When in need, people and strangers are exactly the kind of help we need to maintain our positive mood. Let others inspire and get inspired by you. You can start by connecting with new people in the online environment: chat with strangers, meet new people through social networks and develop some virtual friendships, but all with a limit. Try to separate the real relationships from the virtual ones and do not absolutely ignore your real life and be drawn in the virtual reality. Each of them plays their part in our lives, but there has to be a perfect balance between the two of them.
Social connections are way more important than the virtual ones. Family and friends are included here, but this doesn’t mean that you are not allowed to make new friends or colleagues, as long as you don’t forget about the old ones. Your work is the perfect environment to start developing some new relationships, either friendly or romantically. Getting to know people, learn from them and find a source or self-motivation just by looking up to them is a good way of maintaining your mental health.
One sure way to be in peace with ourselves from a mental point of view is to practice yoga. Believe it or not, yoga restores the balance between our mind, body and soul, because its practices are based on these three elements that make us human. Reaching that inner peace and calm, controlling our breath and learning to be flexible with our minds and not only the body, these are benefits that only yoga can provide us.
But they are not the only ones. Yoga has a special power of increasing the flexibility of our body and reducing the daily stress, but twisting your body in complicated positions or finding your inner peace are not the only advantages that come with this practice. Yoga is also good for our health and also on personal and professional plan. From far away, the benefits of yoga reach both physical and mental side.
So are you eager to find out what are some yoga benefits that help you maintain your physical and mental health? Yoga can boost our immunity. Breathing better and moving more freely makes our blood circulation better and by doing that, all of our other organs function better. This means that yoga might turn out to be a good shield of protection against flues or colds.
Yoga help us ease or migraines. If you’re having serious problems with the migraines and headaches, why don’t you try out some yoga positions? The specialists claim that after three months of practicing, you will feel and see the results. Even if we cannot establish a precise cause for the headaches and migraines, some yoga poses might work even better than a pill or two.
Yoga can boost our sexual performance and activities. Yay! If you’re thinking that yoga poses only help you be more flexible in bed, then you really don’t know much about it! Studies revealed the fact that if you practice yoga for almost 12 weeks, then you will feel more aroused, will have more confidence in yourself and the satisfaction for you and your partner will be more intense. Also, your orgasms will be quite explosive. If this is not a proof that yoga is good for your (sexual) health and can improve your sexual desire a lot, then I don’t know what it is!
Having trouble sleeping? Maybe you will be happy to know that eight weeks of yoga n a regular basis can significantly improve the quality of your sleep and “heal” your insomnia problems. Exercising your breathing will ease your mind and you will fall asleep more easily. So when you want to take a nap, try using a yoga pose.
Craving unhealthy foods? Yoga comes to the rescue! Specialists confirm that if you practice yoga regularly, you will be more aware of the physical and emotional sensations that you experience while you are eating. One more proof that yoga is good for strengthening the connection between the mind and the body. We’ve discussed the flexibility issue before, but I have to say that if you’re a beginner, don’t get trapped in negative thoughts because at first you won’t be able to bend your body at some certain degrees. After awhile, the muscles will relax and be more flexible.
Yoga helps build muscle strength. With yoga, you’ll never have to worry about back pains and arthritis again! Plus, muscles look good on somebody, so why don’t you be that one somebody?
Yoga can help you perfect your posture. A poor posture might get you troubles like back pains, neck pains or other muscle problems. Learning how to discipline your body and establish a spiritual connection between it and the body will help you correct your body positions.
There are a lot others benefits that yoga provides for our health and these are just a few of them. Also, keep in mind that you can practice yoga both alone and with your partner. Couples doing yoga are happy to share these special moments together, and trust my word on this: if you add the calm and serene state of mind inspired by the exercises to the fact that you and your partner are in this together, then it is a double reason to be proud and happy for yourself.
But apart all of these, there are other things that we can do that help us take care of our health. These tips make not only our health better, but our lives too!
Drink more water. Our bodies are made of water and water is a vital element to us, so let’s take more advantage of it. Plus, water eliminates toxins out of our bodies and carries nutrients to our cells. Make a habit of drinking 6 to 8 glasses of water each day. At first, might seem difficult to keep a track, but remember the fitness mobile apps I told you about? There are also mobile apps that count how much water you drink in a day and keeps a track of your hydration process.
Sleep more hours per night. Just think of the times you were moody, depressed or you were feeling like energy was drained out of your body by an invisible force. All of that could have been caused by the lack of enough hours of sleeping. Try and develop a bedtime routine and stick to it. Keep your bedroom dark, quite and cold through the night.
Take supplement pills. Vitamins are very good for our immune system and can be a powerful source of energy and will. If you’re having trouble with your appetite, consider taking supplement pills. Also, if you’re trying to lose weight in order to get healthy, there are some supplement pills that can help you with your struggle and some of them are made of natural ingredients.
Ditch the bad influences and vices. Smoking, drinking, coffee and drugs, they all mess up with our health in ways we surely don’t want. Before you say no, try to apply the first rule on the vices as well: find an activity with which you can replace them. For example, if you smoke, chew gum, if you drink, eat fruits or find the right combinations that will work only for you.
Are you looking for some healthy tips to live by? Mark my words on this: Cook, cook, cook. Perfect your skills in the kitchen and put more focus on eating more cooked food in your diet. Cooking allows you to select exactly what do you want to eat and choose the right ingredients that do not affect your diet plans and routine. You need to go low on calories or fat? No problem.
Also, you want to go less carbohydrates? Again, no problem. In this way, you are the master of your eating plan, choosing what is good and what is bad for your health and body. You set the limits and you set the cheatings (and by cheatings I mean the times when you allow yourself to indulge with snacks, junk food or any other cravings that you might have). Cook from scratch, because in this way, you can perfectly control what goes into your food (or out of it).
Try to eat a balanced diet. Since we’ve spoken so much about food and diets, you should remember that it is important to eat meals of each food category and in the correct proportions: breads, grains, vegetables, fruits, meat, meat substitutes and other proteins, milk, fats, fish, eggs, rice, potatoes, beans and so on.
Variety is the basic rule to live by. For example, if you choose to eat more fruits and vegetables, try to sort them out based on their different colors. Why? Because different colors mean different nutrients that your body needs to stay strong and healthy. Remember that not only the green fruits and vegetables are good. Red orange and yellow work too! And others, of course.
If you want to be prepared, then you have to be informed. This said, it means that you have to document yourself on the foods you’re eating so that you can understand where do they come from and in what way do they affect your body and energy value. Also, knowing how much calories or fat certain foods have, help us control better the amount of calories or fats we have to intake on a daily basis.
Remember to eat foods that contain vitamins, proteins, minerals, fibre and good fats
Integral cereals and whole grains are a great choice for a healthy breakfast. And speaking of breakfast, try not to skip it, because it is the meal that sets your tone of energy and mood throughout the day.
Drink more water. I know I said it before, but otherwise you wouldn’t have been convinced about the importance of the water on our healthy habits.
Get enough sleep. No matter how much work you have to do or how busy are some days of your week, sleeping is essential and you can’t go past it, absolutely not! It restores your energy and help your organism recover from the stress and exhaustion that you’ve experience throughout the day and by doing so, it will function well, as it should.
Stress can be a real pain in the ass and that is most of the time. But there are certain ways that we can ditch the stress and enjoy a more pleasant life. How? Let’s try out these tips:
- Deep breathing. Sometimes you happen to experience moments in which it seems you can’t find enough air in the atmosphere to breathe. Close your eyes for a bit and try to eliminate all thoughts that round and circle in your mind. Just picture a blank or dark image. And then focus on the breathing part. Take really deep breaths and don’t rush into exhaling the air. Keep it in your lungs for a couple of second and then let it all out, slowly. Exercise like this each day and you’ll soon develop a good way of eliminating the bad “toxins” for the brain – the negative thoughts. Deep breathing also help you calm down when you are stressed out or anxious. If you ever feel like there is not enough air in the room, try to follow the mentioned steps above.
- Try some sort of meditation. Meditation is good for calming and soothing your mind and thoughts. Either you adopt a classic position for this process or you try out a new one (maybe one inspired by yoga), all you have to do is find some corner of your room or a space outside that make you feel warm and cozy, adopt the chosen position and then get to business. Relax your mind, breathe and exhale, control your breathing process and soon afterwards you will feel more peaceful and at ease. If it helps, try to think of some happy moments in your life or rewind some of the best memories you have. On the other hand, if you’re facing difficult decisions or choices that you’re going through right now, try to think about them while you relax your body. Through meditation, you can see things more clearly and judge them accordingly.
- Yoga is a good way to relieve stress. Inner peace and all of that I’ve said above. Make sure you try out new positions each day and you will see that as time passes, you’ll develop more flexibility and your muscles will soon begin to accommodate and relax. Also, don’t forget that yoga is mostly about breathing and your lungs are the most important organs in this entire process. Plus, it’s super-stress-relieving!
- Massage. When you are too tired and exhausted, all that tension accumulates in the muscles of your body, so getting a good massage might be all you need in order to relieve the stress. If your partner has soft hands and knows what to do with them, you can ask him to massage your body and the zones with the most pressure on it. You might end up receiving more than just a massage ;). Or, if you feel like leaving a professional handling this part, you can always make an appointment to a spa or beauty center in order to get the best treatment that you deserve. Massages will definitely relieve you of stress!
- Exercises and fitness training. Yes, baby! Does the message “30 minutes of exercising every day” sound familiar? In this case, you know exactly what you have to do! Don’t delay, don’t postpone and don’t procrastinate! Time is an essential asset and is all in your favor as you start using it properly. Training your muscles and body is one of the best ways that can help you ditch the stress and live a healthy life.
- Healthy eating. Natural ingredients, cooking, eating fruits and vegetables, these are the best and quick ways to follow on your healthy lifestyle program. Also, food has a lot of impact on your levels of stress, so you’d better start to figure out which foods make you stressed and which not. You never know when you are “poisoning” yourself with food that simply feeds your stress and anxiety.
- Talking to a friend or a close one. Something nasty happened recently? Have you been through a rough time lately? Everything seems to go from wrong to worse and you are not able to see the light at the end of the tunnel? A close or best friend might see it for you and might help you open your eyes and see it too! Don’t underestimate the power of a good friend. When we are stressed out, a good friend can be the best medicine in the entire world. His advice, his attention and understanding of our problems don’t compare with anything else.
Ask for help from a counselor or a specialist. Sometimes it’s best to leave our health in the hands of the professionals. Especially if we are talking about our mental health. Stress is a major factor that can affect both our mental and physical health, but for the mental part, it’s always good to see a counselor, a psychologist or any other sort of therapist that can understand and help us relieve the stress that’s causing us so much problems. Not only a specialist provides you the attention and better understanding of the difficult situations that you’re passing through, but he or she can also prescribe some extra help for you. Maybe drugs can calm you down if nothing else is able to.
Or maybe you need someone that can level himself or herself down to you and provide you a fresh and new perspective of things. Before you say no, before you fall into the stereotype that only the crazy ones need a therapist, think about how much good you can obtain from these sessions. Think about your calm and peace and how much more efficient is to spend a few money on a specialist’s opinion rather than one of a family member or friend. The best part of a specialist is that it has both the experience and the expertise and knows exactly how to help you relieve the stress that’s eating you up. So why not rather be safe than sorry?
Do you feel more optimistic with regards of your health?
Well, maybe you will want to start doing something right here and now! What do you say if you start planning your own schedule of healthy living activities that will help you implement a new and refreshing way to maintain both your physical and mental health? Let’s see, what do you say of some steps you should follow immediately? Like these ones:
Whatever you decide to do, make it fun. Plan trips with a group of friends, go on hiking together, spend time with your loved ones and with the master of your heart, take some karate class, register yourself to a yoga class, or do whatever crosses your mind first. There’s no need to get stuck in old habits or a routine program, especially when you know you have so much to choose from! Remember: do not stall anymore! Use time only in your favor and do whatever makes you happy and optimistic!
Keep a track of your favorite activities, either physical or mental. Start writing a “diary” of your activities and note down how each and every one of them makes you feel. Also, you can have more than one diary if you don’t want to mix out pleasures with bad moments. Keep a diary where you sign your fitness progresses and another one in which you can fully and freely express your feelings and thoughts. Emotions are a big part of the healthy process and keeping just the ones with the positive vibes around might get a little tricky, but as long as you know how to separate them, then you are safe and well.
Set some weekly goals for your physical activities. For example, you’ve started to run a couple of minutes each day. Set a limit that by the end of the weekend, you would’ve run 50 minutes on a single day. Have a positive attitude toward your diet too! For example, start replacing the verb “I should” with the verb “I choose”. So, make it “I choose to eat more fruits and vegetables each day” instead of “I should eat more fruits and vegetables each day”. It is absolutely no problem if it is not working out from the start, but you will find out soon enough that the positive attitude and thinking will prove to be very useful.
Ditch the guilty feelings. You’ve eaten a lot of chocolate lately and you know that if you want to lose weight, you should cut down the fill of chocolate. Feelings of guilt start to show up. If you’re too emotional, it might break you down. And negative thoughts start to appear as well. And in a blink of an eye, you’re back to the point where you’re trying to ditch the pessimism and negativity out of your life. Well, isn’t it better to leave the guilty part out of the equation?
Make a good plan of stress management. Whenever stress kicks in, you have to be prepared to get rid of it as soon as it hits. For example, listen to a favorite song or take a few quick and deep breaths. Or run the stairs up and down if it helps you cool down. But try to invest a little time and effort in some activities that you know it might be good for your stress management. And remember to breathe!
Manage sleeping hours properly. Start with setting on a regular sleep routine. Make 8 hours of sleep at least a priority in your life. Don’t count on the weekend sleeping hours in order to catch up! And follow a hand of helpful tips before bedtime: try to avoid watching TV or staying on the computer at least two hours before going to bed, try not to practice some hard or difficult exercises before bedtime hour, because it won’t do you any good, if it helps, take a long hot bath and pamper yourself with some moments only for you.
Build relationships with different kind of people. Preferably people you can be happy around them. It’s important to establish both virtual and face-to-face connections and relationships. Don’t rely so much on the time you spend with yourself, because spending time with other people might be even better. Go for long walks, enjoy the weather outside, go to cinema or make jokes, go on dates if you’re single or ask your partner out more often.
People bring energy and good vibes in our lives, so why not take advantage of it? Also, if there are people in your life that you think they are or have a bad or a negative influence over you, try to turn away from them. Nobody forces you to be around people that you can’t stand or whose company you don’t enjoy. This is why it is so important to constantly meet new people and surround yourself with different types of personalities. People help us keep our mental health at peace.
Constantly challenge your mind. As I said earlier, the mind is a powerful muscle and it has to be trained, daily if it is necessary. Try to memorize something new each day – either if it’s the lyrics of your favorite song, a quote or two from a movie or some beautiful sentence you’ve read on a book. It helps your mind function well and it serves you good, indeed. Also, read a lot of books. Someone once said that the most dangerous human is the one who read only a book. And that reading books will open some new and refreshing perspectives for you. And it’s true. Reading does not only keep you informed and make you look smart, but it’s also an activity that you can use for recreation or relaxation.
Look for new ways to maintain your healthy lifestyle. The Internet is full of tips and tricks that can help you lead a healthy lifestyle, without having to depose too much of an effort. Either if you’re interested in diet tips or exercises for physical activity, or some stimulation for your mental health, here is the perfect place to look for it.
Keep in mind that health is not something we should take for granted and we shouldn’t be interested in only when we see it’s starting to go down. Also, health is not something that money can buy, no matter how many pills and drugs we might buy. We owe to each other to take really good care of us, because if we don’t do it, nobody will. And don’t forget that leading a healthy life doesn’t necessarily have to be or remain a simple goal you once set in life and couldn’t reach or gave up trying to achieve it. Help yourself be more proud of you in learning how to really take good care of your health!
I would define myself as an experience journalist and an interactive copywriter with an extra interest in scriptwriting, copywriting, branding, proofreading.etc…
In the last 8 years of my life I have been covering news related to health care department, by doing this in a way I have developed a soft spot for subjects about Health & Well-being, Weight Loss & Fashion, Industry Trends.
I have worked very closely with affiliates publications to the Indian Express Group like Express Pharma and Express Biotech, where I have assisted the editor to perform different editorial tasks including special issues, editing, pagination, proofreading texts…